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Hardware configuration diagram of the high-temperature three-phase AC—DC converter. With the volumetric power density of 6. It gives a detailed design for each component, including the active component, passive component, and the system. Figure 13 shows the drawing and the prototype of the rectifier system.

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DC—DC converters are widely used in the electric vehicle, more electric aircraft, and renewable energy. For example, high power HEV, the electric drive system is made up of a storage battery, DC—DC converter, inverter, electric machine, and control circuit, in which DC—DC converter plays a role in boosting the DC voltage for the post inverter unit. Due to the electrification and electromechanical integration of HEV, as well as the limitation of self-cooling capacity, these harsh conditions give power converters characteristics of reliability when operating in a high-temperature environment.

The high voltage levels reach up to tens of thousands of volts, which are mainly used for communication, radars, transmitters of electronic warfare equipment, and a variety of cathode ray tube displays.

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For Si power electronic devices, switching losses increase significantly with the increase of switching frequency. It can be seen that both switching loss and junction temperature keep a linear relationship with switching frequency when the high-temperature and thinner layer solder is used for die attach.

Switching loss and junction temperature distribution diagram under different frequencies. The excellent mechanical properties of SiC material, coupled with the good thermal stability at high operating temperature, offer new possibilities for developing MEMS devices for extremely harsh applications compared to those possible with Si devices.

The measurement and control technologies are also required for the high-temperature converters, and SiC devices allow the functionally integrated circuits ICs to operate in extreme environments. The first SiC-based power ICs were reported in [ 77 ]. Figure 16 shows the optical photo for 4H-SiC power integrated circuit after packaging, which includes a large power JFET and two buffer circuits.

The performance was tested using a commercial power BJT under the resistive and capacitive conditions with the operating switching frequency up to kHz. In their latest publication, the controlled duty cycles from 0. MEMS switches have mainly been developed in a broad swath of RF and microwave applications, and they could possibly replace positive-intrinsic-negative PIN diode, mechanical, FET, and other types of switches [ 87 ].

When compared to traditional micromechanical switches, MEMS switches have several advantages, such as lower insertion loss, higher isolation, and better switching figure-of-merit. They are widely used to measure oil pressure, fuel pressure and tire pressure in automotive applications, electronics, and telecom.

The Foxboro is the first company who is involved in MEMS switches with the invention of the first electromechanical switch patent in the world in Analog Devices, Inc. The digital micro switches can also be used for wireless power transfer, but the maximum operating temperature has not been reported.

High-Performance Packaging of Power Electronics | MRS Bulletin | Cambridge Core

Gate drives play an important role in the interface the control circuit to SiC-based devices, determining the performance of power electronics devices. Although SiC-based devices have high-speed switching capability, the drive circuit should also be matched to make full use of high-speed switching capability. Therefore, the SiC high-temperature drive circuit cannot follow the drive circuit based on conventional Si devices. Since the parasitic capacitance of a similarly-sized silicon carbide device is much lower than that of Si-based devices.


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This will increase the gate loop and introduce larger parasitic parameters, which decrease the high-speed switching capability of the SiC-based devices in practical application. Then, the switching frequency will be limited under this condition. The performance of SiC power electronic devices might be degraded when employed in high-temperature condition. By testing, the threshold voltage of 1. The reduction of threshold voltage makes the crosstalk occur more easily in the bridge-arm circuit [ 89 ].

Furthermore, the active miller clamping circuit is designed to avoid the bridge-arm shoot-through. On the other hand, the gate drive board is allowed for a high-temperature environment only if the SOI die, PCB, passive components, packaging, as well as the input signal isolator, can endure the high temperature. This is expected to reduce the volume of easy chip-level integration, eliminate the high-temperature ageing effects of materials, and reduce the impact of parasitic parameters. The current divider and Hall sensor are usually employed to measure the current for converter control; however, they are challenging to work in the high-temperature environment.

To tackle this problem, the saturated current sensor is developed for high-temperature application. For example, the isolated DC and AC current measurement method based on a bidirectional saturated current transformer Figure 17 can be applied to the high-temperature converter with SiC devices, which can suppress the effect of the coercive force of magnetic materials on detection precision [ 90 ].

Mod-03 Lec-14 Multichip modules (MCM)-types; System-in-package (SIP); Packaging roadmaps

The parameters matching over a wide temperature range is also an issue to design the high-temperature power electronics. The performance of the SiC components will degrade under the wide temperature cycling and the high operating temperature. With the increase of the operating temperature, the junction capacitance of SiC devices is decreased, and the switching speed is increased. In addition, the coefficient of thermal expansion between adjacent components should be similar; otherwise excessive mechanical stress will cause damage to the device.

Since SiC material defects and brittleness limit the size of the wafer to a small value of 4 inches in general use, the maximum current of a single chip is about A. The cost of SiC chip grows exponentially with the chip current. For the application of high-power converters, the multichip power module is a cost-efficiency solution.

Among paralleled chips, the parameter mismatching due to the parasitic parameters can result in the uneven electro-thermal stress. For all kinds of active and passive components, their temperature stability difference can result in the unmatched electric parameters and unbalanced mechanical stress, which significantly influence the performance and reliability of high-temperature converters.

SiC converters and MEMS devices face the challenge of a minimum of parasitic parameter and capability of operating in a high-temperature environment. Due to the fast switching speed and low threshold voltage, SiC devices are deeply affected by the inherent and line parasitic parameters, which requires the packaging design to minimize the length of pin and wire, but the compact layout reduces the area of dissipation [ 91 ].

Likewise, the packaging technology is also a challenge to the fabrication of SiC devices for high-temperature applications. The high-temperature welding technique is one of the critical factors to improve the high-temperature capability of SiC devices [ 92 ]. The advanced material technique and the innovative structure design need to be developed to approach the SiC physical limitation.

Packaging materials and structures with improved reliability at higher temperatures are imperative for the implementation of SiC devices, mentioning the high-temperature die attach, high-conductivity TIM, and aggressive heat rejection system. For the die attach, CTE, melting temperature, porosity feature, as well as electrical and thermal conductivity are not the only indices [ 93 ].

The mechanical properties such as the modulus of elasticity, ductility, and yield strength are of equal importance [ 94 ]. Lead-free gold-based solders are a good choice for niche applications, but their mechanical stiffness is as a limiting factor, which can transfer stresses to SiC devices resulting in die cracking. The thermal resistance of TIM is still the bottleneck in most power electronics packaging, so the high-performance filler materials should be further investigated as both an enhancement and a basis for TIMs.

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Double-sided cooling structures, two-phase cooling methods and novel coolants can improve the cooling capability for SiC modules, which need further demonstration and understanding of long-term reliability before industrial applications. To meet high requirements for industrial applications like the electric vehicle, electric aircraft, deep-earth oil and gas exploration, and geothermal energy development, developing the high-temperature power electronics with a significant increase of power density, efficiency, and reliability is indispensable.


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Compared with conventional Si power electronic devices, SiC power electronic devices have many advantages, including improved converter performance, reduced volume and weight, and simplified heat dissipation structure. This paper presented an overview of the development of high-temperature component profiles.

Integrated Circuit, Hybrid, and Multichip Module Package Design Guidelines: A Focus on Reliability

It indicated that the advanced materials and technologies are vital for the performance promotion of high-temperature converters. Three typical application examples of SiC high-temperature converters and MEMS devices have been studied, which show the application status in several fields and uncover the main existing issues. Although many researchers are currently focusing on high-temperature packaging and integration technologies, high-temperature power electronics with SiC devices appear promising for reliable operation in a wide temperature range.

Indeed, the performance of SiC converters and MEMS devices can be further enhanced when the high-temperature packaging and gate drive progress, and when the measurement and parameter matching problems are well resolved. LGG18F and No. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Micromachines Basel v.

Micromachines Basel. Published online Jun Find articles by Xiaorui Guo. Find articles by Zuxin Li. Find articles by Shuxin Du. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Apr 14; Accepted Jun This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Table 1 Applications of high-temperature power electronics.

Open in a separate window. High-Temperature Components The electrical system, from power generation, power conversion, and power transmission to all kinds of power equipment, runs in a wide temperature range. Figure 1.